Why Bitter Gourd Leaves Turning Yellow?

Nutrient deficiency in bitter gourd can cause yellowing of its leaves.

Nitrogen and potassium are among the primary nutrients that ensure the ideal growth of the plant.

Nitrogen deficiencies can be revived by adding well-balanced vegetable fertilizer. Wood ash or potassium sulfate can add potassium to the soil.

It’s heart-wrenching when your plant leaves start turning yellow day by day.

However, it’s not always an alarming issue. Old leaves of plants turn yellow and shed as they age. Luckily, new leaves are substituted.

You must panic when new leaves of bitter gourd are turning yellow.

If you tend to ignore it, you may soon lose your plant.

Bitter gourd plant leaves turn yellow due to internal or external stress. Lack of essential nutrients, overwatering or underwatering, extreme climatic conditions, soggy soil or pests can cause discolouration of leaves.

Bitter gourd or bitter melon is one of the most famous Asian vegetables. People eat it as chips, or stuff other vegetables and sometimes even meat in them.

As the name suggests, bitter gourd has a very mouth-puckering taste, and people have to get used to the taste.

Bitter gourds are a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, which includes all the melons like water, musk, and cucumbers.

Bitter gourd can be grown as cucumbers, but since they are a subtropical plant, they need at least three to four months of hot and humid weather to mature appropriately.

Also Read: How Much Water Does Radish Need?

Why does Bitter Gourd leave Turning Yellow?

It can be overwatering, underwatering, insufficient sunlight, choosing the wrong soil, low levels of nutrients or pests.

Whatever the cause is, you must initially diagnose the issue to revive the plant.

Let me add this: if only a few lower or older plant leaves are turning yellow, then you don’t have to worry; it’s normal.

1. Overwatering – common with new gardeners

Growing plants in the backyard gives me an excellent feeling. However, sometimes curiosity does better than good.

Excess watering of your plant will result in discoloured foliage, stunted growth and root rot.

To revive the plant, stop watering and let the soil dry completely. Set the watering frequency and avoid overwatering.

2. Underwatering – when you leave for an unplanned vacation

As a gardener, it is hardly possible to ignore watering plants.

So, how can plants go underwater?

When you’re on an unplanned vacation, drooping and yellow leaves are signs of underwatering.

To revive, start watering generously, and next time, arrange some alternative way to water your plants. In some cases, plants can completely dry and can’t be revived.

3. Sunlight – The plant needs 6 to 8 hours of sunlight

When bitter plants don’t get enough sunlight, they fail to produce the required amount of food, resulting in yellow leaves.

4. Nutritional Deficiency

Yellowing foliage or yellow veins are clear signs of nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen deficiency can negatively affect the plant throughout its entire life.

Potassium depletion can also cause the leaves to turn yellow in some cases.

Suppose you have noticed that your leaves are turning weak and breaking easily; they may need potassium. If your plants’ leaves turn dull, they need nitrogen, as the leaves of the plant’s tent go dull before they turn yellow.

Plants with ample nitrogen will have shiner leaves, and plants with a generous amount of potassium will be tough and won’t bend or break easily. In this case, your plant requires nitrogen and potassium.

If you are worried that the reason behind bitter gourd leaves turning yellow is an infection, no, it isn’t. It is just that your plant has a deficiency of potassium or nitrogen or even both in some cases.

On the contrary, some infections can also cause deficiencies; in this case, you will have to look at other factors like curling of the leaves, etc.

bitter gourd leaves turning yellow

Potassium deficiency remedy

In case of a deficiency in potassium, you can use any of the three things to bring it back to normal levels

  • Potassium sulphate
  •  Monopotassium phosphate, this will also add phosphorus
  •  Wood ash: make sure that the soil isn’t too alkaline, as wood ash tends to increase the pH levels of the soil.

Nitrogen deficiency remedy

In the case of nitrogen deficiency, you can use all-purpose, full fertilizers made for vegetables as they are a good nitrogen source.

You can also use ammonium sulphate urea or even mono ammonium phosphate (this has little nitrogen and a lot of phosphorus.

Soil deficiency

If you have noticed any nutrient deficiency symptoms in the outdoor soil, you might be facing an issue with your soul’s pH levels, and it is advised that you get it tested and do what is needed.

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Bitter Gourd: Soil, Water and Sunlight


Prepare the potting soil by mixing garden soil, sand, old compost and perlite. This is to ensure the excess water is drained and, at the same time, it can retain moisture.


Without sunlight, your vegetable plant may experience stunted growth.

Bitter gourd needs 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight.


Water the bitter gourd plant consistently to keep the soil moist. If you live in a tropical region, water generously in the morning and evening.

If needed, use hay grass to avoid the escape of moisture into the atmosphere.

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About the Plant

Bitter gourd is a vining plant and has deeply lobed leaves. The gourd grows in the same manner as cucumber and squash grow. The plant’s vines are about 13 to 16 feet long, provided you don’t prune it.

Fruits of these plants are oblong; they are either super smooth or warty. They are about 8 inches long, but the length varies from fruit to fruit, between 2 and 8 inches.

When the bitter gourd ripens, its colour changes from yellow to orange. The flesh of the bitter gourd is watery, crunchy, and similar to cucumber.

Also Read: How Long Does it Take to Grow Potatoes in a Bucket?

Here is a list of some of the nutrient issues you can look into your plants

If you have noticed that the leaves of the plants are smaller and the underneath are purple, you will have to add phosphorous. Phosphorus is the best option for plants during the cold season.

If the fruits’ size is unusually small, then this may indicate that they have a deficiency of potassium or phosphorous.

If, after the primary face or even during the older phase, the leaves have started to yellow and their veins remain green, your plant has a magnesium deficiency.

If the leaf’s underside has a purplish tinge and gives a translucent look, your plant has a sulphur deficiency. Sulphur deficiency, like iron deficiency, causes the leaves to turn yellow during the new growth.

Now that you know the deficiencies and the reason behind bitter gourd leaves turning yellow, let us look at how you need to grow the bitter melons so that they don’t get any of these diseases. Plantation and earlier care are very important. These two steps can change the future of the plant.

Proper planting time

Bitter gourds/melons are a warm-season crop, and the best time for growing them is tropical and subtropical heat and humidity.

Always grow bitter melons in the area where the daytime temperatures range from 24 to 31 degrees centigrade ( 75 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit).

Start planting your bitter melons in late spring to early summer. Begin by sowing the seeds outside, or you can also transplant the plant, but no sooner than two to three weeks after all the danger revolving around frosting has passed and the soil has warmed up.

Also Read: Is Peat Moss Good for Tomatoes?

A place where you plant bitter melons

As stated above, bitter gourds grow in hot and humid climates; this means choosing a location that is warm and sunny and the sun’s rays in the area for at least 6 hours each day.

Always plant bitter melons in soil with a pH ranging from 5.5 to 6.7. Also, it must be compost-rich and well-drained.

Before you plant or add the compost and manure, make sure you have made the beds to make your seeding and every other step easier.

Bitter gourd can tolerate sandy or silty loam soil, but the soil should have a great drainage system.

Planting and spacing

  • Begin by sowing the seeds in holes about ½ inch deep; the space between them is 12 inches.
  •  Begin by sowing around two seeds in each hole. The seeds will begin to germinate in about 8 to 10 days.
  •  But keep in mind that low and high temperatures and soil that is too dry and too wet can also slow down the process of germination.
  •  If the plants are trained on a trellis or fence, the spacing between them should be around 9 to 10 feet.
  •  These plants love to sprawl while growing, so make sure they are grown on straw or plastic mulch, as this will prevent them from resting on moist soil, which may lead to rotting.

Now that you have planted and germination has begun, you must take care of the pants even during the middle period, as this will avoid the problem of bitter gourd leaves turning yellow and bitter gourd turning yellow.

Also Read: How Long Does it Take to Grow Spinach?

The middle period

The process of trellising can easily prevent the disease and make the process of harvesting a lot easier. Start by placing the trellis 6 feet high and wide or next to each plant.

After you have noticed that the vine has begun to grow to the top of the trellis, start pruning or pinching away all the lateral branches from the soil up to the 10th mode.

This will stimulate the upper branches, allowing them to grow and yield higher.

Then, prune the plant from its lateral areas around the 2 to 3-foot-long part; begin by pruning the growing tip when it has reached the top of the trellis.

This will ensure that the plant produces high amounts of flowers, and the fruiting will also start sooner.

The fruit grown from the trellis will grow longer and have a straight shape than those grown on the ground.

Feeding and watering the plant

Always keep the planting beds of the bitter melon moist, which means watering them regularly to have proper fruit growth and development.

Add aged compost, as it is the best food for plants. You can also slowly add organic fertilizer 5-10-10 around the plants at the early stage.

You can also side-dress the plants with aged compost during the growing season, as it will add nutrients and help the soil retain moisture.

To boost the plants, ensure you water compost or add a comfrey team every third week of the growing season.

The perfect companion for bitter gourds

The perfect companion plants of bitter melons are Beans, corn, peas, pumpkins, and squash. Make sure that you are not growing bitter melons with herbs and potatoes.

Pests that can harm the bitter melon

Bitter melons get attacked by spotted and striped cucumber beetles; the cucumber beetles are known for carrying a bacterial disease that causes the vines to collapse, and once they collapse, they don’t recover.

Begin by spraying the adult beetles with insecticides that are rotenone or pyrethrum-based.

Always use the pesticides during dusk as this way, you will not be able to harm the honey bees.

Attack by fruit flies

Fruit flies also attack the bitter melon and cause them to riot the fruit. Make sure that you are preventing the flies from reaching the fruits.

You can do this by covering the fruits with paper bags and securing the bags with twine or rubber bands.

You can also wrap them with newspapers when the fruits have reached a height of one to two inches.

The diseases that infect the bitter melon

Bitter melon is susceptible to the same disease that plague squash and cucumber are susceptible to.

These include fungal diseases like downy mildew, powdery mildew, rusts and rots, watermelon mosaic virus, and bacterial wilts.

To prevent these diseases, trellising the plants will increase air circulation around the vines and keep the fungal infection at bay. If the vines are non-trellised, you can use straw or plastic mulch to prevent the plants from resting on the soil.

Remember that the plants that the virus has attacked have no cure. So always make sure that you have disease-resistant seeds.

Harvesting of bitter melons

Start harvesting the bitter melon about 12 to 16 weeks after planting and around 8 to 10 days after the first blossom of the plant drops.

This will be when the fruits are around 4 to 6 inches long.

The fruits of the bitter gourd will have a pear shape, and the skin will be light green and have a few yellow streaks.

Keep in mind that if the fruits stay for a longer period on the vine, they will begin to over-ripen; in that case, they will turn yellow, and their size will be too large and become bitter as they grow.

Fruits belonging to the same vine will have various bitterness and melons when immature or overripe and can taste bitter.

After ripening, the thin layer of flesh on the bitter melon turns orange to bright red, and the fruits’ flesh surrounds a hollow interior cavity with a spongey white pulp with seeds.

Fruit is watery and crunchy, just like the cucumber.

The bitterness of the melon is the result of alkali momordicine. The plant’s bitterness also depends upon the colour; the darker the colour, the bitter the taste will be.

Important note!

Once the melons ripen, you must pick the fruits regularly after two to three days.

This is because the more you pick, the more the fruits will form on the plant. Else, bitter gourd fruit and its leaves turn yellow.

Diseases of bitter gourd

Powdery Mildew (Sphaerothecafuliginea):

This disease usually occurs when the humidity is high and only occurs on the older leaves at first.

It can be controlled if you spray Carbendazim (1 ml/litre of water) or Karathane (0.5 ml/litre of water) after the disease’s appearance. You should do 2-3 sprays at an interval of 15 days.

Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum):

In this disease, the plants will show symptoms of temporary wilting, which then further becomes permanent and progressive, which affects more vines.

In this, the leaves of the affected plants start yellowing, lose the turgidity, and start drooping.

You can control this by three sprays of Karathane (6 g in 10 litres of water) or Bavistin (1 g /litre of water) immediately or after noticing the initial symptoms at an interval of 5 to 6 days.

Why My Bitter Gourd Fruit Turning Yellow?

Bitter gourd turn yellow when it is overripe.

Age, environmental factors, diseases or pests can cause the fruit to ripe early.

If you notice the bitter melon is ripe before harvesting, then don’t consume it.

Plant seeds with diseases shouldn’t be used for germination and planting.


Bitter gourd leaves turn yellow when you don’t care to pay attention.

Regularly check the plant’s essential needs. Soil, water and sunlight.

Along with this, conduct soil tests before adding balanced fertilizers. Well-drained soil that retains moisture and nutrients is best suited for vegetable plants.

Regulate watering frequency according to climatic conditions in your region.

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