Pepper plants are among the most common plants in vegetable gardens around the world. Be it Chinese, Japanese, Italian, Mexican, American, or Mediterranean, no cuisine in the world can be complete without the spicy flavour that peppers add.
Growing pepper plants is a fairly easy job as these plants do not need any extra care.
However, pepper plants also come with some common problems like a hole in pepper plant leaves which can leave you confused and clueless about their origins and solutions. Such problems have taken away the peace of mind of many home gardeners.
Having an organic garden at home provides you with the opportunity of harvesting easily available healthy and fresh vegetables which taste several times better than the ones found in supermarkets and grocery stores.
The taste of these vegetables is enhanced further by the fact that they are fruits of your labour and have been grown by yourself in a completely organic and healthy manner.
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A garden at home without a few pepper plants does not seem quite complete. These easy-to-grow plants can be grown with very little care and effort and can become one of the most useful plants in the entire garden.
After all, can you cook even a single meal without any pepper in it? Well, most people cannot. Pepper plants are therefore a must in your vegetable garden if you are a lover of spicy food or are into cooking.
Pepper is a very useful vegetable, various varieties of which are available in the markets. Each variety of pepper has a different degree of hotness and a different kind of flavour. While some are extra spicy and hot, others are mild tasting. Milder varieties, such as bell peppers, are used as an ingredient in salads and dishes.
However easy cultivating peppers might be, once in a while you are bound to be faced with one problem or another which will leave you confused, frustrated, and disheartened.
Holes in pepper plant leaves is one such problem. Suddenly noticing holes in the leaves of your healthy pepper plants one morning and not knowing where they came from can be disheartening.
Have your pepper plants been attacked by this problem? Are you, too, fed up of discovering newer holes in their leaves every day?
In this article, we will talk about all the causes of this grave problem and list the most effective solutions so that you can bag a healthy batch of peppers at the end of the growing season. So stop worrying and read on!
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Introduction: Know Your Plants
Irreplaceable in the cuisines of the tropical regions of Asia and equatorial parts of America, peppers are native to tropical America. A genus consisting of more than 30 species of plants from the Solanaceae family, some varieties of peppers are used as a spice, while some others are used as vegetables.
Peppers are also useful for your body, providing you with numerous health benefits. Peppers keep the digestive tract healthy by helping to heal an upset stomach, curing diarrhoea, remedying cramps, and reducing intestinal gas.
Peppers are good for your heart, and help in driving away migraines, relieve joint pain and improve metabolism. They are also useful in combating flu, fungal infections, and the common cold.
Peppers are delicate perennials that are grown as annual plants all around the world. They grow on small, straight-standing bushes that usually grow about 45-65 cm tall. Peppers do best in temperatures between 65°F to 80°F with temperatures above 85°F being harmful for flowering and fruition.
Peppers do not need extensive watering, but dry soil is harmful to them. They are ready to be harvested in about two to three months after sowing. Most varieties take around 60-80 days while some might require up to 95 days to mature.
They are susceptible to be attacked by a number of pests like aphids, cutworms, hornworms, and flea beetles that can seriously affect crop production.
To ensure that you have a healthy batch of peppers after the growing season, take good care of your pepper plants. Although they are quite easy to grow and are ready to be harvested earlier than most vegetables, just like all other plants, they too need care and the right conditions to grow and remain unaffected by pests and diseases.
What Causes Holes In Pepper Plant Leaves?
Now that you have learned everything that you need to know about your pepper plants, let us discuss one of the most dreaded problems of pepper gardeners.
If you have suddenly discovered that your pepper plant leaves are covered in small holes, and are clueless about where they came from, we know exactly how frustrating the experience might have been for you.
If you are left pondering ‘Where did holes in my pepper plant leaves come from’, we have the answer. If your plants have holes in their leaves, it is most likely that your garden has been invaded by pests that are digging into the leaves and are feasting on them.
These can be harmful depending upon the kind of pest that has attacked your plants and the extent to which they have affected them.
Here are some of the most common pests that like to invade pepper gardens. Take a look and identify the symptoms that your plants are showing. Read on to find the solution to your problem to solve this never-ending problem once and for all.
Cutworms are among the most destructive pests that can attack pepper plants. They usually target seedlings and younger plants that are yet to bear fruit to enjoy the delicate leaves and stems.
They chew numerous holes in the leaves, damaging the entire plant in cases of severe attacks. Cutworms can even chew off the plant’s entire base and cut it down completely, killing it. Needless to say, these pests have to be controlled the moment you discover their presence.
If left untreated for too long, cutworms can be the end of your garden in no time. They can chew down the entire garden before you know. The most important step to take in the direction of getting rid of them is to identify which pest has invaded.
Cutworms are difficult to identify as during the initial stages their symptoms resemble the symptoms of any common pest. However, if your plants are young and holes have appeared on their leaves, chances are high that the culprits are cutworms. Cutworms generally do not attack older plants that have borne fruit or reached their maturity.
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#2 Flea Beetles:
Alike Cutworms, flea beetles also have a particular liking for younger plants. However, they do not commonly attack seedlings. If your plants are yet to mature or are just about to reach maturity and are attacked by pests at this stage, it is most likely the flea beetles.
Because of the similarity in the age of the attacked plants, it can be difficult to tell flea beetle infestation from that of cutworms. However, the size of the holes made on the leaves and the reach of the pests should help you identify the culprit.
- The most common way of identifying flea beetles is to look for how widespread the infestation is. If you notice very small holes on a large number of leaves, with the infestation spreading out in your garden like wildfire, know that the dreaded flea beetles have announced their arrival.
- This is because these insects can jump quickly from one leaf to another, and go from plant to plant in no time. Once identified, get rid of them at once to solve the problem while there is still time.
- You can just render your leaves inedible to these pests by spraying them with a mixture of dish soap and water. This should keep flea beetles away from your beloved pepper plants. While harvesting, wash the peppers very carefully to make them edible to you.
Another very deadly pest that can have eyes on your elegant pepper plants is the aphid. One of the most dangerous threats to your plants, aphids stick to pepper leaves for sucking their sap out from the very bottom. In the process, they create holes.
Holes on the leaves are among the initial symbols. In case of an aphid attack, your plants will soon turn yellow and start to wilt. Gradually, the leaves would die, and in case of a severe attack, the plants would soon die out, too.
Aphids also leave a sticky secretion on the leaves which they use to transfer bacteria to the leaves, which eventually results in mould development, causing massive damage to the plant. They cluster on the lower side of the pepper leaves and excrete honeydew which attracts other pests and bugs to the plants.
If you do not deal with these pests at the earliest, they might end up ruining your entire garden, killing every single pepper plant in it. To ensure that your pepper plants keep living, wash the aphids away, or use natural pesticides.
#3 Corn borers:
Though these pests do not directly affect leaves, they make their way into the pepper pods and destroy them. They can reduce the quantity of your harvest greatly and leave you disheartened during the harvesting season.
Grasshoppers chew on pepper plants, especially the leaves and the fruit. They can be dangerous as a large group of grasshoppers can easily decimate all your pepper plants in no time. The extent to which these seemingly harmless insects can damage your plants is sure to take you by surprise.
How to Prevent Holes In Pepper Plant Leaves?
If you have read the article up to here, you know more than enough about the nature and cause of the holes in your pepper leaves. Now it is time to learn how to eradicate the problem to ensure a healthy batch of peppers during the harvesting season.
Pests that cause holes in pepper leaves have been a major concern for pepper gardeners ever since humankind began cultivating this spicy vegetable. Various methods of solving the problem have also been developed, therefore.
Even though most gardeners these days choose pesticides to get rid of the problem causing pests, avoiding chemicals is always advisable.
These pesticides not only kill the problem causing element but also destroy other pests and bugs that might have been useful to your garden. Also, using this means compromising on the organic quality of your vegetables.
Some other ways of getting rid of these pests are listed here below.
- Allow birds to enter your garden. Birds feed on insects like grasshoppers and aphids and keep their number in check. If enough birds are invited to your garden, the problem can be solved in no time. If possible try keeping chickens and ducks too. These birds feed on various harmful insects that can destroy pepper plants completely.
- Use Silver mulch. Spread silver mulch on the ground around your pepper plants. This will keep various pests like whiteflies away.
- Attract the ‘good bugs’ into your garden. What better way of dealing with the problem of pests than seeking the help of a natural food chain? Introduce ‘good bugs’, like ladybugs, which feed on the smaller, more harmful pests into your garden to ensure that your pepper plants remain safe. Good bugs protect your plants against harmful pests by having them for meals.
- Use natural and nontoxic pesticides that are now available in the market. Pesticides made up of organic compounds like Spinosad are now becoming common in markets enabling organic gardeners to have both organic and pest-free gardens.
- Keep your garden clean and free from weeds and debris. A clean garden easily houses healthy plants without becoming a breeding ground for pests.
- Practice crop rotation every year to prevent the build-up of pests and fungus in the soil itself.
Pepper plants are among the plants that are comparatively immune to pests. They remain pest free for most of the time during their growing season.
The right amount of care and watching over is all your pepper plants need to grow and mature into healthy plants bearing the perfect peppers.